Cover Page

Contents

Notes on the Editors

General Introduction

Acknowledgments

Anthropology and Epistemology

PART I

SECTION 1: Culture and Behavior

1 The Aims of Anthropological Research

2 The Concept of Culture in Science

3 Problems and Methods of Approach

Examples of Ethos in English Culture

4 The Individual and the Pattern of Culture

SECTION 2: Structure and System

5 Rules for the Explanation of Social Facts

I

II

6 On Social Structure

7 Introduction to Political Systems of Highland Burma

Social Structure

Unit Societies

Model Systems

Ritual

Interpretation

Social Structure and Culture

8 Social Structure

Definition and Problems of Method

Social Statics or Communication Structures

SECTION 3: Function and Environment

9 The Group and the Individual in Functional Analysis

Personality, Organization, and Culture

The Individual Organism under Conditions of Culture

The Instrumental Imperatives of Culture

The Place of the Individual in Organized Groups

The Cultural Definition of Symbolism

The Individual Contributions and Group Activities in Knowledge and Belief

Summary and Conclusions

10 The Concept and Method of Cultural Ecology

Culture, History, and Environment

Cultural Ecology

The Method of Cultural Ecology

The Methodological Place of Cultural Ecology

11 Energy and the Evolution of Culture

12 Ecology, Cultural and Noncultural

Determinists and Possibilists

Steward’s Method of Cultural Ecology

Ethno-Ecology

Ecology Rather Than Cultural Ecology

SECTION 4: Methods and Objects

13 Understanding and Explanation in Social Anthropology

I

II

III

14 Anthropological Data and Social Reality

15 Objectification Objectified

PART II

SECTION 5: Meanings as Objects of Study

16 Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture

I

II

III

IV

V

17 Anthropology and the Analysis of Ideology

III

IV

V

VI

VIII

18 Subjectivity and Cultural Critique

A Brief History of the Debate over the Subject

Another Look at Geertz’s Concept of Culture

The Cultural Construction of Subjectivity

Some Very Brief Conclusions

SECTION 6: Language and Method

19 Structural Analysis in Linguistics and in Anthropology

20 Ordinary Language and Human Action

Thought, Action and the Nature of Human Studies

21 Language, Anthropology and Cognitive Science

II

III

IV

V

VI

SECTION 7: Cognition, Psychology, and Neuroanthropology

22 Towards an Integration of Ethnography, History and the Cognitive Science of Religion

Implicit Cognitive Constraints on Religious Transmission

Cognition and Religious Variation: Where Ethnography, History, and Science Meet

Conclusion

23 Linguistic and Cultural Variables in the Psychology of Numeracy

24 Subjectivity

25 Why the Behavioural Sciences Need the Concept of the Culture-Ready Brain

The Trouble with Anthropology

Culture and Biology

Cultural Distortions of Perception

The Culture-Ready Brain

Closing Remarks

SECTION 8: Bodies of Knowledges

26 Knowledge of the Body

The Language of Representation

Initiations and Imitations

The Environment of a Way of Acting

27 The End of the Body?

The Fordist Body

The Body in Late Capitalism

Sexuality, Family, and Disposable People

28 Hybridity: Hybrid Bodies of the Scientific Imaginary

The Moral Parameters of Embodied Hybridity

The Intimacy of Interspeciality

Conclusion: Hybrids and the Scientific Imaginary

PART III

SECTION 9: Coherence and Contingency

29 Puritanism and the Spirit of Capitalism

30 Introduction to Europe and the People Without History

The Rise of the Social Sciences

The Uses of Marx

31 Introduction to Of Revelation and Revolution

Culture, Hegemony, Ideology

Consciousness and Representation

32 Epochal Structures I: Reconstructing Historical Materialism

33 Structures and the Habitus

A False Dilemma: Mechanism and Finalism

Structures, Habitus and Practices

SECTION 10: Universalisms and Domain Terms

34 Body and Mind in Mind, Body and Mind in Body: Some Anthropological Interventions in a Long Conversation

Body and Mind in Mind

Body and Mind in Body

35 So Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?

Is Male Dominance Universal?

Picturing the Emergence of Male Dominance

Is Nature/Culture Universal?

36 Global Anxieties: Concept-Metaphors and Pre-theoretical Commitments in Anthropology

History, Methodology and Comparison

Alternative Images of the Global

Imagined Worlds

People in Focus

Getting a Grip

SECTION 11: Perspectives and Their Logics

37 The Rhetoric of Ethnographic Holism

Imagination of Wholeness and Rhetorical Necessity

Social Wholes, Social Parts and Classification

Parts and Wholes

Rhetorical Wholes Are Not Social Entities

From Rhetoric to Social Structure

38 Writing Against Culture

Selves and Others

Culture and Difference

Three Modes of Writing Against Culture

39 Cutting the Network

I

II

III

SECTION 12: Objectivity, Morality, and Truth

40 The Primacy of the Ethical: Propositions for a Militant Anthropology

Moral Accountability and Anthropology in Extreme Situations

The Politics of Representation

Anthropology without Borders: The Postmodern Critique

The Primacy of the Ethical

Witnessing: Toward a Barefoot Anthropology

41 Moral Models in Anthropology

42 Postmodernist Anthropology, Subjectivity, and Science: A Modernist Critique

The Importance of Subjectivity

Culture and Personality

Postmodernist Innovations Regarding Subjectivity

43 Beyond Good and Evil? Questioning the Anthropological Discomfort with Morals

Plea for a Moral Anthropology

Who’s Afraid of Morals?

Portrait of the Anthropologist as a Moralist

The Politics of a Moral Anthropology

Conclusion

PART IV

SECTION 13: The Anthropology of Western Modes of Thought

44 The Invention of Women

Visualizing the Body: Western Theories and African Subjects

45 Valorizing the Present: Orientalism, Postcoloniality and the Human Sciences

Sketches for a Metatheory of Western Theories

46 Cosmological Deixis and Amerindian Perspectivism

Introduction

Perspectivism

Animism

Ethnocentrism

Multinaturalism

The Spirit’s Many Bodies

SECTION 14: (Re)defining Objects of Inquiry

47 What Was Life? Answers from Three Limit Biologies

Introducing Three Limit Biologies

Artificial Life: Life Forms at Limits of Abstraction

Marine Microbiology: Life Forms at Limits of Materiality and Relationality

Astrobiology: Life Forms at Limits of Definition

What Was Life?

48 The Near and the Elsewhere

49 Relativism

The Import–Export System of the Two Great Divides

Anthropology Comes Home from the Tropics

There Are No Cultures

SECTION 15: Subjects, Objects, and Affect

50 How to Read the Future: The Yield Curve, Affect, and Financial Prediction

What Is the Yield Curve?

A New Epistemic Terrain

The Yield Curve Today

Conclusion: Reflexive Troubles

51 Signs Are Not the Garb of Meaning: On the Social Analysis of Material Things

Materiality as a Semiotic Problem

Objects as a Problem for Subjects

Signs in Their Causal Relations

Bundling and the Openness of Objects

Semiotic Ideology

The Openness of Things Is Inherently Historical

Clothing Taken to Be Meaningful

Words and the Objectualization of Things

Objects and the Possibilities of Subjects

52 Affective Spaces, Melancholic Objects: Ruination and the Production of Anthropological Knowledge

Ruination, Abject and Social Theory

Objects of violence

Affective Spaces

Melancholic Objects and Spatial Melancholia

SECTION 16: Imagining Methodologies and Meta-things

53 Beyond “Culture”: Space, Identity, and the Politics of Difference

Imagined Communities, Imagined Places

Space, Politics, and Anthropological Representation

54 What is at Stake – and is not – in the Idea and Practice of Multi-sited Ethnography

A Non-obvious Paradigm for Multi-sited Ethnography

The Loss and Reclamation of the Social in Recent Ethnography

55 Grassroots Globalization and the Research Imagination

Anxieties of the Global

The Optics of Globalization

Flows and Disjunctures

Regional Worlds and Area Studies

The Idea of Research

Democracy, Globalization, and Pedagogy

Globalization from Below

56 The End of Anthropology, Again: On the Future of an In/Discipline

Triage: Three Symptomatologies of Crisis

Defying Death, or Vigor Mortis

Anthropological Futures: First Thoughts, Second Guesses

Conclusion

SECTION 17: Anthropologizing Ourselves

57 Participant Objectivation

58 Anthropology of Anthropology? Further Reflections on Reflexivity

The “Objectivity” Conundrum

Arenas of Reflexivity: Textual and Institutional

Etiquette and the Academy as Instituted Fantasy

Lessons from “Reflexive Sociology”

Curmudgeonry as “Paraethnography”

59 World Anthropologies: Cosmopolitics for a New Global Scenario in Anthropology

Cosmopolitics

Anthropologies of Empire-Building/Anthropologies of Nation-Building

Asymmetric Ignorance: Metropolitan Provincialism and Provincial Cosmopolitanism

Final Comments

60 Cultures of Expertise and the Management of Globalization: Toward the Re-functioning of Ethnography

Central Banks

The Anecdotal Amid Other Genres of the Para-ethnographic: A Glimpse at Alan Greenspan’s Practice of the Para-ethnographic

Para-ethnography as Method

The Beige Book

The Warrant for the Postulation of the Para-ethnographic in Cultures of Expertise

Index

Index

abjection

abnormality

abstraction

Abu-Lughod, Lila

academic etiquette

actor-network theory (ANT)

actor-originated descriptions

Adamson, Walter L.

Adolphs, Ralph

advocacy groups

affective life

see also emotions

affective spaces

agency

Agricultural Revolution

agriculture

AIDS

Alexander, F. Matthias

alienation

Althabe, Gérard

Altman, Dennis

Amadiume, Ifi

American history

Amerindian perspectivism

animism
ethnocentrism
multinaturalism
spirit’s many bodies

amnesia

analogous cultural forms

ancestor-money

Anderson, J. R.

animals

husbandry

spirits

animism

anomie

anthropocentrism

anthropological data

observed behavior

anthropology

as social science
barefoot anthropology
biological anthropology
cognitive anthropology
concept-metaphors
contemporary discipline
crisis
future developments
contextualization
cultural anthropology
definitions xi
ethics see ethics
lack of influence
male bias
methodology
near and elsewhere
objective or subjective see objectivity; subjectivity
pre-theoretical commitments
research see research
scientific status
social anthropology
explanatory approaches
holistic approach
subdivision and traditions
terminology
truth claims
Western traditions see Western thought

Anzaldua, Gloria

Appadurai, Arjun

apprenticeship learning

archeology

architecture

Ardener, E. W.

area studies

’Are’are culture

Arendt, Hannah

Arens, William

Aristotle

art history

articulation models

artificial life

artistic work

Asad, Talal

asceticism

association

astrobiology

astronomy

asymmetric ignorance

Atkinson, Jane

Atran, Scott

Augé, Marc

Austin, J. L.

authentic existence

authoritative discourse

authority

avuncular relationship

axiological neutrality

 

Bachelard, Gaston

bad faith

Bakhtin, Mikhail

Balinese culture

Bally, Charles

Barclay, Robert

barefoot anthropology

Barthes, Roland

Basaglia, Franco

Bates, Marston

Bateson, Gregory

Baudrillard, Jean

Beattie, J. H. M.

Bechtel, William

Bedouin culture

beggars

behavior

behavioral change

behaviorism

Beidelman, T. O.

Beige Book

beliefs

Bell, Diane

belonging

Benedict, Paul K.

Benedict, Ruth

Benjamin, Walter

Benoit, Hubert

berdaches

Berger, John

Berger, Peter

Bergson, Henri

Bernardino de Sahagún

Bernstein, Richard

Best, David

bias

binary oppositions

Great Divide
near and elsewhere

Binswanger, Ludwig

bio-logic

biological anthropology

biological determinants

basic needs

functional analysis

biological ecology

biological evolution

biology

life forms
artificial life
astrobiology
marine microbiology
three limits biologies

biopsychological structures

biotechnology

Bisharat, George

Black, Stephen

Blacking, John

Bloch, Maurice

Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich

Boas, Franz

Boas, Franziska

bodily symbolism

body praxis

Amerindian perspectivism
bio-logic
Cartesian dualism
commodification
disadvantaged groups
Fordist mass production and
habitus
hybridity
immune system
initiations and imitations
language of representation
late capitalism and
logo-centric bias
male dominance
mind and body
sexuality

Bonfante, Julien

borders

Borneman, John

Bourdieu, Pierre

Bourdillon, M. F. C.

bourgeois ego

bourgeoisie

Bourguignon, Erika

Bouveresse, Jacques

Bowen, Elenore Smith (Laura Bohannan)

Bowerman, Melissa

Boyer, Dominic

brain function

cultural distortions of perception
culture-ready brain
imaging research
mirror neurons
social brain

Bram, Jason

Brazil

Breugger, Urs

bridewealth

Briggs, Jean L.

Brown, Beverly

Brown, Norman O.

Bruner, Edward M.

Bunyan, John

Burke, Donald S.

Burke, Kenneth

Burling, Robbins

Burma

Butterworth, B.

 

Caesar, Julius

Calvinism

Camper, Petrus

cannibalism

capitalism

central banks
global finance

car driving

Carter, Jimmy

Cartesian dualism

catachresis

catalepsy

Caucasus

causality

mechanism and finalism
signs and language
teleology and
see also agency; determinism

Cavell, Stanley

central banks

Cesara, Manda

Chakrabarty, Dipesh

Cherkess culture

chess

Cheyronnaud, Jacques

Chicago school

Childe, V. Gordon

Chinese numeracy

Chisholm, Penny

Chodorow, Nancy

Chomsky, Noam

Christianity, anthropology of

chronological reconstruction

Churchland, P. M.

Churchland, P. S.

Cicourel, Aaron Victor

civilizing mission

Cixous, Hélène

classification

holism
prototypes and best exemplars

Clausewitz, Carl von

Clifford, James

clothing

cockfighting

coercive force

cognition

cognitive anthropology

cognitive science

brain function
religion and

cognitivist fallacy

Cohen, Anthony P.

Cohen, G. A.

Cold War

collective actions

collective consciousness

collective habit

collective identity

collective personality

collectivity

selfish collectivities

Collier, Jane F.

colonialism

see also imperialism

commodification

common interest

communication structures

community

comparison

competition

Compton, Arthur Holly

computers

Comte, Auguste

concept-metaphors

conceptual thought

conditionality

confession

configuration

conflicts

Conklin, Harold

connectionism

consciousness

hegemony and

contextualization

contradictory consciousness

Cook, James

co-operation

Coppet, Daniel de

correspondence theory

cosmology

Amerindian perspectivism
animism
ethnocentrism
multinaturalism
spirit’s many bodies

cosmopolitanism

cosmopolitics

countertransference

counting systems

Crapanzano, Vincent

Crick, Malcolm

cross-cultural comparisons

cross-dressing

Crow Indians

Csardas, T. J.

Cuba

cultural activism

cultural anthropology

cultural beliefs see beliefs

cultural bias

cultural configuration

cultural critique

cultural determinism xiii

overdetermination
see also causality

cultural difference

cultural diffusion

cultural distinctiveness

cultural ecology

determinists and possibilists
ethno-ecology
Steward’s method

cultural evolution

energy concentration
ideological systems
social systems
technological systems

cultural hegemony

consciousness and representation

cultural history

cultural institutions

cultural materialists

cultural meanings see meaning

cultural phenomena

cultural plasticity

cultural production

cultural reappropriation

cultural relativism xiii

cultural systems

cultural transmission

cultural uniformity

cultural values see values

culture

as determinant see determinism
functional analysis see functional analysis
individual and see individual, in relation to culture
nature and
origin of the term
scientific concept
social structure and
standardizing effects
transmission
writing against

Culture and Personality movement

culture-ready brain

cultures of expertise

Cunningham, Hilary

customs

Cyprus, partition

 

dance

Danda, Ajit K.

D’Andrade, Roy

Darwin, Charles

Darwinism

data collection

observed behavior

Davis, Kingsley

de Beauvoir, Simone

de Certeau, Michel

death

Defoe, Daniel

dehumanization

Deleuze, Gilles

demystification

Derrida, Jacques

Des Marais, David

Descartes, René see Cartesian dualism

descent-group endogamy

Descola, P.

determinism xiii

overdetermination
see also agency; causality

Devereux, George

Dewey, John

difference

cultural xiv
individual

differentiation

diffusion

digital computers

dimensions

Dionysian cultures

disadvantaged groups

see also oppression; subalterns

discourse

discriminatory usages

disposition

division of labor

Dobu culture

domesticated animals

dominant groups

Don Quixote

Donham, Donald L.

Douglas, Mary

Dowden, Edward

Dreyfus, Hubert

Dreyfus, Stuart

driving

dualism

Great Divide

Dumont, Jean-Paul

Dumont, Louis

Durkheim, Emile xi–xii

dynamic processes

 

Eagle, Morris

eclecticism

ecology

cultural ecology
Steward’s method
determinists and possibilists
ecological systems
ethno-ecology

economic determinism

economic life

capitalism
central banks
global finance
kinship and
money

economics

financial prediction: yield curve

Edelman, Gerald M.

education

egalitarianism

ego-gratification

Ekman, Paul

elaborated codes

Elster, Jon

Elwin, Verrier

embodied knowledge

bio-logic
habitus
initiations and limitations
language of representation
logo-centric bias
see also body praxis

Emmet, Dorothy

emotions

affective spaces
appraisal
basic emotions
display rules
facial expression
feeling
gender and
physiology
representation
social expectations
universality

empathetic dialogue

empirical reality

empiricism

endogamy

energy concentration

Engels, Friedrich

English culture

English language

environmental activists

environmental influences

environmental threat

epistemic status

epochal structures

equilibrium

Errington, Shelly

essentialism

gender

esteem

ethics

anthropological discomfort with morals
anthropology without borders
barefoot anthropology
denunciation
extreme situations
medical
moral accountability
moral models versus objectivity
political engagement
postmodernism
primacy
witnessing
womanly anthropology

ethnicity

ethnocentrism

Amerindian perspectivism

ethno-ecology

ethnographic holism

ethnographic maps

ethnographic particularism

ethnography

expert subjects
multi-sited
retreat into the local
women’s tradition of ethnographic writing

ethnohistory

ethological approach

ethos

English culture

etiquette

academic

etymology

Europeanism

Evans-Pritchard, E. E.

Everett, Daniel

Everett, Keren

evil

evolutionary history

evolutionary psychology

evolutionism

existential status

exogamy

exoticism

expert subjects

expertise

explanatory approaches

extended-case method

Eysteinsson, Astradur

 

facial expression

family

government support for
unclear families
see also kinship systems

Farmer, Paul

farming see agriculture

feelings see emotions

feminism

cultural feminism
Middle East women’s studies
Western gender discourses
womanly anthropology
women’s tradition of ethnographic writing

feminist post-structuralists

Ferguson, James

Fernea, Elizabeth

feudalism

Feyerabend, Paul

Feynman, Richard

fictions

field approach

fieldwork

multi-sited ethnography

finalism

financial prediction

fire

Firth, Raymond

Fischer, Eugen

Fischer, Michael M. J.

Flynn, J. R.

Fodor, J. A.

folk psychology

“folkways”

Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de

Forde, C. Daryll

Fordist mass production

formalized language

Fortes, Meyer

Fortune, R. F.

Foster, M. K.

Foucault, Michel

Fox, Robin

fragmentation

Frake, Charles

France

Frank, Andre Gunder

Frazer, James George

Freud, Sigmund

frustration

Fuel Revolution

functional analysis

cultural definition of symbolism
individual contributions and group activities in knowledge and belief
individual organism under conditions of culture

instrumental imperatives of culture

personality, organization, and culture

place of the individual in organized groups

functional integration

functionalism

fur trade

Furet, François

 

Gautier, Léon

Gazzaniga, M. S.

Geertz, Clifford

Gell, Alfred

Gellner, Ernest

Gelman, Rochel

Gemeinschaft

gender

concept-metaphor
cross-dressing
emotion and
essentialism
feminist post-structuralists
gender categories
initiations and imitations
male dominance
social categories and
Western discourses
see also homosexuality; sexuality

gene transfer

genealogies

general principles

generalization

genetics

genius

genotype

Genovese, Eugene D.

geographical determinism

geographical distribution

geographical territories

process geographies

Geras, Norman

Germany

Gesellschaft

Gibbs, Jewelle

Giddens, Anthony

Gilligan, Carol

Gladwin, Thomas

Gleick, James

global change

global civil society

global concept-metaphor

global finance

central banks

global flows

global/local distinction

globalization

anxieties
asymmetries of information and ignorance
cosmopolitics
disjunctive flows
grassroots
heteroglossia
internationalization of research
post-imperial world anthropologies
regional worlds and area studies
World Anthropologies Network (WAN)

Gluckman, Max

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang

Goldman, I.

Goldstein, Kurt

Goodenough, Ward

Goody, Esther

Gordon, Peter

Goss, Charles Mayo

Gould, Stephen

Gow, Peter

grammar

Gramsci, Antonio

grassroots globalization

Great Divide

Greek culture

Greek-Cypriots

Greenspan, Alan

gregariousness

Greider, William

grief

group consciousness

group mind

groups

Grünbaum, Adolf

Guattari, Félix

guilt

Gupta, Akhil

 

habitus

Hacking, Ian xv

Haeckel, Ernst

Hahn, Eduard

halfies

Hall, Stuart

Hallowell, A. I.

Hamel, Rainer Enrique

happiness

Haraway, Donna

Harding, Sandra

Harré, R. H.

Harrison, Jane

Hart, H. L. A.

Hartland, Sydney

Hartmann, Nicolaï

Harvey, David

Haudricourt, A.-G.

Hawley, Amos H.

Hazard, Paul

Hebdige, Dick

Heberle, Rudolph

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

hegemonic anthropology

hegemony

consciousness and representation

Hepatitis C

Herder, Johann Gottfried

heredity

hermeneutics

Herodotus

heteroglossia

Hettner, Alfred

Hinduism

historical approach

historical determinism

historical explanation

historical material

historical materialism

HIV/AIDS

hobo population

Hocart, A. M.

holism

Holland, Dorothy

Hollingshead, A. B.

Holmes, D. R.

Holy, Ladislav

homelands

homogenization

homology

homophobia

homosexuality

Hoskins, Janet

Howard, G. E.

Howell, Signe

human agency

human interrelationships

human needs

Humboldt, Wilhelm von

Hume, David

hunger

hunting

Huntington, Ellsworth

Husserl, Edmund

Hutchins, Edwin

Huxley, Thomas Henry

hybridity

cell lines
cultural
human and nonhuman
interspeciality
material and form
postcoloniality

hyperspace

hypnotherapy

hysteresis effect

 

Iatmul culture

Ibn Batuta

iconicity

idealism

identity

ideological structures

consciousness and representation

image schemata

imagination

imagined worlds

immigration

immune system

imperialism

post-imperial world anthropologies
see also colonialism

implicit structures

incest taboo

incommensurables

indigenous anthropologists

indigenous groups

individual, in relation to culture

functional analysis
individual contributions and group activities in knowledge and belief
individual organism under conditions of culture
personality, organization, and culture
place of the individual in organized groups

individualism

Industrial Revolution

industrialization

inequalities

Ingold, Tim

initiation rites

inner lives

innovation

instrumental imperatives

integration

intellectualism

intelligence

interconnections

interests

internality

international politics

internet

interpretation

interpretivism

interspeciality

invention

IQ tests

Irigaray, Luce

irrationality

 

Jackson, Michael

Jackson, Peter

Jakobson, Roman

Jameson, Fredric

jealousy

Jefferson, Thomas

Johnson, Mark

Johnson, Philip

Johnson-Laird, Philip

Jolly, Margaret

Jordaneva, I. J.

judicial procedure

Jung, C. G.

Junod, Henri-Alexandre

 

Kachin culture

Kant, Immanuel

Kapferer, Bruce

Kash, Don E.

Katz, Jerrold J.

Keat, Russell

Kessler, Suzanne J.

Keynes, John Maynard

kinship systems

bilateral systems
commodification
cutting ties
maternal uncles
moral and biological parameters
structural linguistics and

Klatt, Berthold

Klemm, Gustave

Kluckhohn, Clyde

Knorr Cetina, Karin

knowledge

Kracke, Waud

Kristeva, Julia

Kroeber, A. L.

Krotz, Esteban

Krystal, Matthew

Kuhn, Thomas

Kuranko culture

Kwakiutl culture

 

La Barre, Weston

Laclau, Ernesto

Lakoff, George

Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste

Lamphere, Louise

language

cognitive science and
connectionism
English language
grammar
hermeneutics
heteroglossia
mythopoesis
non-linguistic knowledge
objectification
ordinary language
sentence-logic model
speech-communities
see also linguistics

language-based models

language-like phenomena

langue

Lapp culture

Laqueur, Thomas

Latour, Bruno

Laud, William

Lave, Jean

law

Law, John

Law, Sylvia

Lazarus, Richard

Le Wita, Béatrix

Leach, E. R.

Leacock, Eleanor

Leander, Kevin

learning

Leenhardt, Maurice

legalism

Leibniz, G. W.

Leonardo da Vinci

Lepowsky, Maria

Leroi-Gourhan, A.

Lesser, Alexander

levels of organization

Levinas, Emmanuel

Lévi-Strauss, Claude

Levy, Marion

Lewis, I. M.

life forms

artificial life
astrobiology
marine microbiology
three limits biologies

lineage society

linguistic privacy

linguistics

Linnaeus, Carl

Lipuma, Edward

literalists

Little, Walter

Livingston, Julie

Llewelyn-Davies, M.

local/global distinction

logical categories

logo-centrism

Lorber, Judith

Lowie, R. H.

Luckmann, Thomas

Lutz, Catherine

Lynch, David

 

McKenna, Wendy

McLuhan, Marshall

Madison, James

magic

Maine, Sir Henry

Maitland, F. W.

Malagasy culture

male dominance

Malinowski, Bronislaw

Malkki, Lisa

Mandel, Ernst

Marco Polo

Marcus, George E.

marine microbiology

marital relationship

Markham, E. M.

marriage

endogamy
exogamy
rules and norms
uxorilocal or virilocal societies

Martin, Emily

Marx, Karl

Marxism

mass production

materialism

materiality

maternal uncles

mathematics

counting systems
numeracy

matrilineal descent

matrilineal survivals

Mauss, Marcel

May, Rollo

Mead, George Herbert

Mead, Margaret

meaning xiii

elaborated and restricted codes
ideological structures
privacy

measurement

mechanical models

mechanism

medical ethics

Megill, Allan

melancholia

Meltzoff, Sarah Keene

mental characteristics

mental models

mentalism

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice

metaphor

bodily symbolism
concept-metaphors
monetary

Methodism

methodology

Mexico

Middleton, J.

migration

mimesis

mind/body distinction

Cartesian dualism

Mintz, Sidney

mirror neurons

model systems

models

modernism

modernization theory

modes of generation

monasticism

money

Montessori, Maria

moral accountability

see also ethics

moral anthropology

moral behavior

moral consensus

moral dilemmas

moral progress

Morgan, Lewis H.

Morgenstern, Oskar

morphology

Morris, William

Morsy, Soheir

Mouffe, Chantal

mourning

multiculturalism

multinational corporations

multinaturalism

multi-sited ethnography

Mundugumor culture

Munn, Nancy

murder

Murdock, G. P.

Murphy, Robert

music

Myers, Fred

mystification

myth

mythopoesis

 

Nadel, S. F.

Nader, Laura

Nanda, Serena

narratives

nationalism

nation-states

native models

natural resources

natural sciences

natural selection

Nature

animism

Needham, Rodney

needs

basic needs

negative workers

neoconservatism

neoliberalism

network analysis

networks

Neumann, John von

neural plasticity

neuroscience

see also brain function

NGOs

Nicholson, Linda

Nietzsche, Friedrich

Nilsson, Lennart

non-events

non-representational theory

non-verbal communication

Nora, Pierre

normality

norms

nuclear technology

Nuer culture

numeracy

counting systems

numerical methods

Nzegwu, Nkiru

 

Oakeshott, Michael

objectification

objective probabilities

objective structures

objectivity xiv

moral arguments against
postmodernist rejection of

objectualization

participant objectivation

observable behavior

observer status

see also participant observation

Okin, Susan

Oliver, Douglas L.

ontogenetic growth

operationalism

oppression

ordinary language

organ transplantation

organization

Orientalism

Ortner, Sherry

otherness

overdetermination

 

palaeontology

Palestinian struggle

Papua New Guinea

paradigmatic structures

para-ethnography

parallel processing

parole

Parsons, Talcott

participant objectivation

participant observation

particularism

Passeron, J.-C.

Pasteur, Louis

patents

pathological decay

patrilineal descent

Paul, Robert

Peirce, Charles Sanders

Peletz, Michael

perception

performative utterance

personal style

perspectivism

Amerindian cosmology
animism
ethnocentrism
multinationalism
spirit’s many bodies

Peru

Petchesky, Rosalind Pollack

Peters, John

Petty, Sir William

phenomenology

phenotype

Philippines

philology

philosophy

phonemics

physiognomy

Piaget, Jean

Piddington, Ralph

Piers, Maria

Piore, Michael J.

Pirahã culture

plants

plasticity

cultural
individual
neural

Plato

Platonism

Poincaré, Jules Henri

Polhemus, Ted

“political animal”

political engagement

political science

political units

popular culture

population growth

Porter, Rodney R.

positionality

positivism

possibilism

post-colonial post-structuralism

postcoloniality

postmodern hyperspace

postmodernism

subjectivity

post-structuralism

power relations xiv

hegemony
consciousness and representation
inequalities
knowledge and power
male dominance
topography

practical knowledge

practice theory

Pratt, Mary Louise

preferential systems

prescriptive systems

pretend play

pre-theoretical commitments

Price, David

pride

probabilities

productive powers

Produktionsverhältnisse

profane/sacred

progress

property

protest

Prynne, William

psychiatry

psychoanalysis

psychological characteristics

psychology

evolutionary psychology
social evolution and

psychopaths

Pueblo culture

punishment

Puritanism

 

Quakers

Quaternary period

Quine, W. V.

Quinn, Naomi

 

Rabinow, Paul

racial types

racism

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R.

Radhakrishnan, R.

Radin, Paul

Rappaport, Roy A.

rationalism

Ravenhill, Philip

Rawls, John

Ray, Tom

Read, Kenneth E.

Reagan, Ronald

reason

Redfield, Robert

reflexivity

regional studies

regularity

Reichian bioenergetic analysis

reification

relations of association

relativism xiii

religion

anthropology of Christianity
cognitive approach to
Puritanism
secularism

religious rites

remorse

reproduction schemata

reputation

research xiv

cultural presumptions
internationalization
method
policy-driven
value-free

resistance

restitution

restricted codes

Reyna, S. P.

Ricoeur, Paul

Riesman, Paul

Riley, Denise

ritual

Rivers, W. H. R.

Robbins, Joel

Robertson, Jennifer

role-play

Rorschach test

Rorty, Richard

Rosaldo, Michelle Z.

Rose, H. J.

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rowlands, Michael

Royce, Anya Peterson

Ruben, David-Hillel

Rudner, Richard

rules

Rushdie, Salman

Russell, James

Ryle, Gilbert

 

Sabel, Charles F.

sacred/profane

Sahlins, Marshall

Said, Edward

Saint Simon, Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de

sameness

sampling

Sapir, Edward

Sarason, Seymour B.

Sarles, Harvey B.

Sartre, Jean-Paul

satellite photographs

Saussure, Ferdinand de

scape

Schapera, Isaac

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph

schemata

image schemata
reproduction schemata

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy

Schiebinger, Lorna

Schiller, Friedrich

Schlesinger, A. M.

Scholte, Bob

Schrader, Otto

scientific method

see also natural sciences

Scott, Joan

scripts

Searle, John

second-order interpretations

Secord, Paul

secularism

Segalen, Martine

segmentary lineage structure

Seibert, Jeffrey

self–other relationship

self-creation

selfish collectivities

self-preservation

self-reflexivity

Shell petrol

semantic anthropology

semantics

semiotics

clothing
iconicity
materiality and
objectualization
semiotic ideology
signs and causal relations

Semple, Ellen Churchill

sentence-logic model

Service, Elman R.

Sewell, William H. Jr.

sexual inequality

sexuality

see also gender; homosexuality

shamanism

Shaw, William

Shostak, Marjorie

Shweder, Richard

Siberia

Sierra Leone

signification

signs

see also semiotics

Simmel, Georg

Sims, Karl

situational analysis

skeletal remains

Skinnerian behaviorism

Skorupski, John

slavery

Smith, Dorothy E.

social

shift from macro- to micro-
use as a term

social activism

social aggregates

social anthropology

data, observed behavior
explanatory approaches
holistic approach

social brain

social change

social class

social control

social display behaviors

social distance

social distinctiveness

social facts

social goals

social imaginary

social institutions

social intelligence

social order

social phenomena

social position

social progress

social psychology

social reality

social relations

social reproduction

social sciences

anthropology
boundaries
development of sociological theory
economics and political science
influence of Marx

social solidarity

social statics

social structure

communication structures
consciousness and unconsciousness
definition
measurement
mechanical models and statistical models
observation and experimentation
social statics
see also structuralism

social structures

culture and

organismic analogy

social systems

social trajectory

social values see values

social wholes

socially patterned behaviors

sociology

development of sociological theory
political origin
psychology and

solar energy

somatic processes

bio-logic
habitus
initiations and imitations
language of representation
logo-centric bias
see also body praxis

South Africa

Southall, Aidan

spatial arenas

anthropological representation
articulation models
borders
cultural critique
ethnographic maps
homelands
imagined communities and places
multiculturalism
multi-sited ethnography
nationalism
near and elsewhere
postcoloniality
postmodern hyperspace
socially constructed space
spatiotemporalization
topography of power
utopianism

spatial theory of affect

specialization

speech

speech-communities

Spelke, Elizabeth

Spelman, Elizabeth

Spencer, Herbert

Sperber, Dan

Spinoza, Baruch

spirit masters

spirit possession

Spiro, Melford E.

Spivak, Gayatri

split selfhood

sport

standardizing effects

Starkey, Prentice

Starn, Orin

statistical models

status positions

Stein, Lorenz

Steward, Julian H.

Stoller, Paul

Strathern, Andrew

Strathern, Marilyn

Strauss, Claudia

Stromberg, Peter G.

structural equilibrium

structural functionalism

structural linguistics

structuralism

see also social structure

Stuchlik, Milan

subalterns

subcultures

subjective aspirations

subjectivity xiv

of the object
of the subject
postmodernism

subordinate groups

suicide

Sullivan, William M.

Sumner, William Graham

supermodernity

supernature

superstructures

symbolic actions

symbolic struggle

symbolic systems

symbolists

syntagmatic structures

 

taboo

incest

Tacitus

Tait, David

Taiwan

Tallensi culture

Taussig, Michael

Taussig-Rubbo, Mateo

technological change

technological devices

technological systems

teleology

finalism

terminology

territorial principle

textual authority

Thatcher, Margaret

thermodynamic process

thick description

“Third World”

Thompson, E. P.

Thoreau, Henry David

Thornton, Robert

thought

Thrift, Nigel

Tinbergen, N.

Tiv culture

tolerance

Tonnies, Ferdinand

tools

tourism

trade

traditional society

traditions

trance

transactionalism

transgendered identity

transnational advocacy networks (TANs)

transnational corporations

transport

tribe

Trobriand Islanders

Troubetzkoy, Nikolai

truth claims

Tsing, Anna

Turkish-Cypriots

Turner, Edith

Turner, Terrence

Tylor, E. B.

 

uncles

unconscious behavior

unit societies

United States

immigration
yield curve

universal Mind

universalism

utopianism

uxorilocal society

 

Valeri, Valerio

Valéry, Paul

value-free research

values

Van Gennep, Arnold

Vayda, Andrew P.

Veblen, Thorstein

Veron, Eliseo

village community

virilocal societies

Voloshinov, V. N.

Vossler, Otto

 

Waitz, Theodor

Wallerstein, Immanuel

warfare

Warner, W. L.

Warnier, J.-P.

Wason’s task

Watkins, James D.

weapons

web of life

see also ecology

Weber, Max

Weiner, Annette

Wesley, John

Western thought

cosmology
gender discourses
Great Divide
idealization of non-Western cultures
logocentricity
metatheory
near and elsewhere
Rationalist Tradition
see also colonialism; imperialism

White, Leslie A.

wholism see holism

Wierzbicka, Anna

Williams, F. E.

Williams, Raymond

Wilson, Deirdre

Winch, Peter

witches

witnessing

Wittgenstein, Ludwig

Wolf, Eric R.

Wolf, Margery

Wood, Allen

Woolf, Virginia

World Anthropologies Network (WAN)

Wright, Eric Olin

 

xenotransplantation

 

Yanagisako, Sylvia J.

yield curve

Yorùbá culture

 

Zajonc, R. B.

Zeitgeist

Ziff, Paul

Zulu culture

Zuñi culture

image

Acknowledgments

The editors and publisher gratefully acknowledge the permission granted to reproduce the copyright material in this book:

 

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24 T. M. Luhrmann, “Subjectivity,” pp. 345–61 (with cuts) from Anthropological Theory 6(3), 2006. Copyright © 2006. Reprinted with permission of SAGE.
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34 Michael Lambek, “Body and Mind in Mind, Body and Mind in Body: Some Anthropological Interventions in a Long Conversation,” pp. 103–18, 121–3 (with cuts) from Michael Lambek and Andrew Strathern (eds.), Bodies and Persons: Comparative Perspectives from Africa and Melanesia
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