cover image


Chapter 1Engine
Chapter 2Clutch
Chapter 3Transmission and Final Drive
Chapter 4Drive Shafts
Chapter 5Steering
Chapter 6Front Suspension
Chapter 7Rear Suspension and Axle
Chapter 8Wheels and Tyres
Chapter 9Brakes
Chapter 10Electrical
Chapter 11Bodywork
Fault Finding Section
Wiring Diagram Index

0. Introduction

0.0.General Information
0.2.Dimensions (typical)
0.4.General Servicing Notes
0.5.Jacking up of the Vehicle
0.0.General Information

This Manual covers the models in the Volkswagen Transporter range from the end of 1999, generally referred to as Type T4 vehicles, with a choice of three diesel engines. The following engines are covered in this manual:

The front suspension consists of an upper and lower wishbones, torsion bars and a stabiliser bar (anti-roll bar), together with double-acting, hydraulic shock absorbers. Not all models have the stabiliser bar. The individual parts of the front suspension can be removed from the vehicle without dismantling the complete assembly. All parts of the front suspension are mounted to a strong crossmember, which can be removed as a complete unit in order to remove the individual units, if major repairs are necessary.

The rear suspension consists of suspension arms with coil springs and hydraulic shock absorbers and a stabiliser (antiroll) bar. The suspension arms are rubber-mounted on the chassis. The wheel hub carrier is bolted to the outside of the suspension arm. The connection to the rear drive shafts takes place at the inside of each rear wheel hub carrier.

A rack and pinion steering, fitted with servo-assistance, is used. Disc brakes at the front wheels and rear wheels are fitted and a brake servo unit as standard fitment, make up the brake system, but not all models have the same front disc brake assemblies. Two types of Lucas calipers or Teves/ATE calipers were used during production and irrespective of the models in question will be covered in the relevant section. ABS can now be fitted to the vehicle. The vacuum for the operation of the brake servo unit is supplied by a separate exhauster pump (vacuum pump).

A five-speed manual or an automatic transmission can be fitted to the vehicles covered in this manual.

With regards to the range of models covered in the manual it must be pointed out that not all of these will be available in any particular country and that the manufacturer reserves the right to make modifications to standard equipment, optional extras and trim as may be necessary for any territory.

Since the variations between certain models are only in fittings and trim it will be unnecessary in some parts of this manual to refer to individual model designations.


Fig. 0.1. - The location of the type identification plate on the passenger side of the vehicle.


Fig. 0.2. - The location of the vehicle identification number at the bottom of the windscreen.


The type identification plate can be found near the front door pillar, close to the door striker plate, at the position shown in Fig. 0.1. The chassis number is stamped into the right-hand side, below the windscreen, and is visible from the outside of the vehicle (arrow, Fig. 0.2). The chassis number can have the following appearance:

WVW2 ZZZ 370 Z Y H 00001

which relates to the following data:


Fig. 0.3. – The location of the engine number on the 1.9 litre diesel engine.

The engine number of a 1.9 litre diesel engine is stamped into the cylinder block between the injection pump and the vacuum pump, at the position shown in Fig. 0.3. The engine code of the two five-cylinder engines can be found next to the injection pump on the left-hand side of the cylinder block, at the position shown in Fig. 0.4. The engine code and engine serial number are quoted. A sticker with the engine code and the engine number is attached to the upper timing belt cover.


Fig. 0.4. – The position of the engine number on the five-cylinder diesel engine.

These numbers are the essential information needed whenever spares or replacement parts are required. The vehicle manufacturer operates a policy of constant improvement and updating and it is only by quoting the vehicle and engine numbers that your dealer can provide you with the correct spares and replacements. The engine code is also included in the details of the vehicle data plate.

Note: If ever in the life of your T4 a replacement cylinder block is fitted, make sure that the original engine number has been transferred to the new cylinder block. This is (a) a legal requirement and (b) will avoid complications whenever you want to sell, part exchange or use the vehicle abroad.

The transmission and the automatic transmission are also identified by a number. As not all transmissions, i.e. gearboxes have the same reduction ratio for the final drive, it will be necessary to refer to these identification numbers (further details in Section 3) when for example a secondhand transmission is fitted. Each transmission has a code and is allocated to a particular engine within the vehicle range.

Section “Brakes” will refer to details where to find the code for the fitted front brake calipers, without the need to remove the front wheels to check their construction.

0.2.Dimensions (typical)
Wheelbase:2920 mm (116.0 in.) or 3320 mm (131.9 in.)
Front track:1598 mm (63.5 in.) or 1607 mm (63.85 in.)
Rear Track:1554 mm (61.75 in.) or 1572 mm (62.45 in.)
Min. ground clearance:180 mm (7.15 in.), 160 mm (6.36 in.) - with lowered suspension
Turning circle:
- Short wheelbase11.7 metres (38.6 ft.)
- Long wheelbase12.9 metres (42.6 ft.)
Engine Oil:
Four-cylinder diesel engine– Without filter4.5 litres (8.0 Imp. pts.)
– With filter5.0 litres (8.75 Imp. pts.)
Five-cylinder diesel engine– Without filter5.0 litres (8.75 Imp. pts.)
– With filter5.5 litres (9.6 Imp. pts.)
Manual transmission:
- Type 02B2.5 litres (4.5 Imp. pts.)
- Type 02G2.3 litres (4.1 Imp. pts)
Automatic Transmission:
Initial filling6.0 litres (10.4 Imp. pts.)
Fluid change3.0 litres (5.25 Imp. pts.)
Differential and Final Drive:1.25 litres (2.2 Imp. pts.)
Cooling system:9.0 litres (2 imp. gall.), all engine
Depending on equipment different capacities apply
0.4.General Servicing Notes

The servicing and overhaul instructions in this Workshop Manual are laid out in an easy-to-follow step-by-step fashion and no difficulty should be encountered if the text and diagrams are followed carefully and methodically. The “Technical Data” sections form an important part of the repair procedures and should always be referred to during work on the vehicle.

In order that we can include as much data as possible, you will find that we do not generally repeat in the text the values already given under the technical data headings.

Again, to make the best use of the space available, we do not repeat at each operation the more obvious steps necessary - we feel it to be far more helpful to concentrate on the difficult or awkward procedures in greater detail. However, we summarise below a few of the more important procedures and draw your attention to various points of general interest that apply to all operations.

Always use the torque settings given in the various main sections of the manual. These are grouped together in separate sub-sections for convenient reference.

Bolts and nuts should be assembled in a clean and very lightly oiled condition and faces and threads should always be inspected to make sure that they are free from damage burrs or scoring. DO NOT degrease bolts or nuts.

All joint washers, gaskets, tabs and lock washers, split pins and “O” rings must be replaced on assembly. Seals will, in the majority of cases, also need to be replaced, if the shaft and seal have been separated. Always lubricate the lip of the seal before assembly and take care that the seal lip is facing the correct direction.

References to the left-hand and right-hand sides are always to be taken as if the observer is at the rear of the vehicle, facing forwards, unless otherwise stated.

Always make sure that the vehicle is adequately supported, and on firm ground, before commencing any work on the underside of the car. A small jack or a make shift prop can be highly dangerous and proper axle stands are an essential requirement for your own safety.

Dirt, grease and mineral oil will rapidly destroy the seals of the hydraulic system and even the smallest amounts must be prevented from entering the system or coming into contact with the components. Use clean brake fluid or a cleaner to wash the hydraulic system parts. An acceptable alternative cleaner is methylated spirit, but if this is used, it should not be allowed to remain in contact with the rubber parts for longer than necessary. It is also important that all traces of the fluid should be removed from the system before final assembly.

Always use genuine manufacturer's spares and replacements for the best results.

Since the manufacturer uses metric units when building the cars it is recommended that these are used for all precise units. Inch conversions are given in most cases but these are not necessarily precise conversions, being rounded off for the unimportant values.

Removal and installation instructions, in this Workshop Manual, cover the steps to take away or put back the unit or part in question. Other instructions, usually headed “Servicing”, will cover the dismantling and repair of the unit once it has been stripped from the vehicle. It is pointed out that the major instructions cover a complete overhaul of all parts but, obviously, this will not always be either necessary and should not be carried out needlessly.

There are a number of variations in unit parts on the range of vehicles covered in this Workshop Manual. We strongly recommend that you take care to identify the precise model, and the year of manufacture, before obtaining any spares or replacement parts.

Std.:To indicate sizes and limits of components as supplied by the manufacturer; also to indicate the production tolerances of new unused parts.
0/S:Parts supplied as Oversize or Undersize or recommended limits for such parts, to enable them to be used with worn or re-machined mating parts.
U/S:O/S indicates a part that is larger than Std. size U/S may indicate a bore of a bushing or female part that is smaller than Std.
Max.:Where given against a clearance or dimension indicates the maximum allowable if in excess of the value given it is recommended that the appropriate part is fitted.
TIR:Indicates the Total Indicator Reading as shown by a dial indicator (dial gauge).
TDC:Top Dead Centre (No. 1 piston on firing stroke).
MP:Multi-Purpose grease.
0.5.Jacking up of the Vehicle

For small jobs, jack up the vehicle as described in the Owner's Manual, with the jack supplied in the vehicle. If a mobile jack is used, make sure it can be inserted between the lowest point of the vehicle and the ground. If necessary, use the vehicle jack to lift the vehicle slightly, until the mobile jack can be inserted. Due to the construction of the vehicle, a mobile jack and/or chassis stands should only be placed under the vehicle as follows, noting that a piece of rubber or wood should always be inserted between the jack head and the jacking point to protect the part in question.

Never apply a mobile jack or a hydraulic jack underneath the engine oil sump, the transmission, the rear axle, the front axle or underneath the front crossmember, as these parts or surrounding parts can either be damaged or distorted.

The recommendation is to first jack up one side of the vehicle, placing a chassis stand underneath the body and then jacking up the other side.

To jack-up the front of the vehicle, place the jack underneath the crossmember at the position shown in Fig. 0.5. Chock the front and rear wheels on the other side of the vehicle with a brick, to prevent the vehicle from rolling off the jack. Also apply the handbrake.

To jack up the rear end of the vehicle place the jack head underneath the mounting bracket of the rear suspension arm, as shown in Fig. 0.6. Engage a gear and chock the front and rear wheels on the other side. Also apply the handbrake.


Fig. 0.5. - Jacking up the front end of the vehicle. The illustration shows a garage-type jack, but a mobile or hydraulic jack is applied at the same position.


Fig. 0.6. – Jacking up the rear end of the vehicle. The illustration shows a garage-type jack, but a mobile or hydraulic jack is applied at the same position.


Fig. 0.7. - “Three-legged” chassis stands are a “must” when supporting the vehicle during operations underneath.

Strong chassis stands must be placed underneath the sides of the body. The bolt used for the height adjustment of the stands (Fig. 0.7) must be strong enough carry the weight of the vehicle - remember this, as make-shift bolts of small diameter will not do.

It is always difficult to raise a vehicle first on one side and then on the other. Take care that the vehicle cannot tip-over when the first side is lifted. Ask a helper support the vehicle from the other side.





1.9 Litre DIESEL (ABL)

2.4 Litre DIESEL (AJA and AAB)




VAN 800, 1000, 1200 - CARAVELLE CL AND GL



This Owners’ Edition - Workshop Manual covers the the Volkswagen Transporter range from the end of 1999 (model year 2000) until the end of production and fitted with following engines: 1.9, 2.4 and 2.5 litre diesel engines. It has been specially written for the practical owner who wants to maintain a vehicle in first-class condition and carry out the bulk of his or her own servicing and repairs. Comprehensive step-by-step instructions are provided for service and overhaul operations to guide the reader through what might otherwise be unfamiliar and complicated tasks. Numerous drawings are included to amplify the text.

With the aid of this manual, many aspects of service, overhaul and repair are within the scope of an owner with a reasonable degree of mechanical aptitude. Some operations however demand more skill. Other jobs require the use of special tools and in some cases testing facilities and techniques that are not generally available. Only you can judge whether a job is within your capabilities. We do however try to assist the reader to come to an informed decision. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided is correct, it is obviously not possible to guarantee complete freedom from errors or omissions.

Information to be found in the driver’s handbook is not necessarily duplicated here and it is not possible within this volume to cover every aspect to be found in the manufacturer’s own workshop manual which is of much greater size and complexity. However, it should be consulted if more detailed information is needed.

Always remember that you are responsible for your own safety and that of others when working on a vehicle. Take particular care with safety-related systems like the brakes and steering, and seek professional advice if in any doubt. Never work under a vehicle unless it is properly supported (a single jack is not enough). Take care with power tools, also regard as potentially harmful fuel, lubricants, solvents and sealers which should always be and kept in labelled, sealed containers.

With care and common sense, the practical owner can make an excellent job of maintenance and overhaul. The benefits include money saved and the satisfaction of work well done. You will be adding to your knowledge, too: knowing more about the vehicle you own will help you to make logical decisions about what needs to be done, even if it does in some instances have to go into a professional repair shop.

The Volkswagen Transporter T4 is a vehicle that will respond to careful regular servicing and is built to a standard that will ensure a long life if this is remembered.

© Copyright Brooklands Books Ltd. 2005, 2008 and Peter Russek Publications Limited

This book has been compiled from text and illustrations supplied by Peter Russek Publications Limited and have been used with their kind permission.

Text and illustrations may not be reproduced, transmitted or copied by any means without the prior written permission of Brooklands Books Limited and Peter Russek Publications Limited.

Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the particulars in this manual, neither the Publisher nor the Distributors nor the Dealer, by whom this manual is supplied shall under any circumstances be held liable for any inaccuracy or the consequences thereof.


Brooklands Books Ltd.

PO Box 146, Cobham, Surrey KT11 1LG, England

Tel. 01932 865051

Fax 01932 868803


1. Engines

1.0.Main Features
1.1.Engine - Removal and Installation
1.2.Engine Dismantling
1.3.Engine - Assembly
1.4.Engines - Servicing and Overhaul
1.5.Engine Tightening Torques
1.6.Lubrication System
1.7.Cooling System
1.9.Indirect Diesel Injection System
1.10.Adjustment on the Fuel Injection System
1.12.Glow Plugs
1.13.Air Cleaner
1.14.TDI Engine - 2.5 Litre
1.15.Turbo Charger
1.0.Main Features
Type:4- or 5-cylinder, in line, water-cooled diesel engine with indirect or direct (TDI) injection and distributor injection pump
Valve gear:Overhead camshaft, timing belt drive to camshaft and injection pump drive gear on 4-cylinder. On five-cylinder engines, the injection pump is driven by separate belt. Camshaft operating directly onto inverted, hydraulically operated bucket-type tappets.
Engine Codes:
- Four-cylinder engine:ABL (replaces engine 1X)
- Five-cylinder engine, 2.4 litresAJA (replaces AAB)
- Five-cylinder engine, 2.5 litresACV, AHY, AJT, AUF, AXG, AXL, AYC
Swept Volume:
- 4-cylinder engine:1.9 litre
- 5-cylinder, 2.4 litres:2.4 litres
- 5-cylinder, 2.5 litres:2.5 litres
- 1.9 and 2.4 litre engines:79.5 mm (3.0393 in.)
- 2.5 litre engine:81.0 mm (3.218 in.)
Stroke, all engines:95.5 mm (3.794 in.)
Compression Ratio:
- Four-cylinder engine:22.5 : 1
- Five-cylinder engine,2.4 litres:23.0 : 1
- Five-cylinder engine, 2.5 litres:
- ACV and AJT engines:19.5 : 1
- AUF, AXG, AXL, AYC engines19.0 : 1
Output (performance) – DIN:
- 4-cylinder engine:50 kW at 3700 rpm
- 5-cylinder engine, 2.4 litres:55 kW at 3700 rpm (AAB engine 57 kW)
- 5-cylinder engine, 2.5 litres:
- ACV engine:75 kW at 3500 rpm
- AHY engine:111 kW at 4000 rpm
- AJT engine:65 kW at 3800 rpm
- AUF engine:75 kW at 3500 rpm
- AXG engine (from Sept. 2000):111 kW at 4000 rpm
- AXL engine (from May 2001):75 kW at 3500 rpm
- AYC engine (from May 2001):75 kW at 3500 rpm
Max. Torque:
- 4-cylinder engine, ABL:14.0 kgm at 2000 – 3000 rpm
- 5-cylinder engine, 2.4 litres, AJA:16.0 kgm at 1900 – 2900 rpm
- 5-cylinder engine, 2.5 litres:
- ACV engine:25.0 kgm at 2300 rpm
- AHY engine:29.5 kgm at 1900 – 3000 rpm
- AJT engine:19.5 kgm at 1900 – 2500 rpm
- AUF engine:25.0 kgm at 1900 – 2300 rpm
- AXG engine (from Sept. 2000):29.5 kgm at 1900 – 3000 rpm
- AXL engine (from May 2001):25.0 kgm at 1800 – 2500 rpm
- AYC engine (from May 2001):25.0 kgm at 1900 – 2300 rpm
Valve Timing1.9/2.4 ltr. 5-cyl. (2.5 ltr.)
Inlet valve opens:6° A.T.D.C. 8° A.T.D.C.
Inlet valve closes:20° A.B.D.C. 28.0° A.B.D.C
Exhaust valve opens:25.5° B.B.D.C.37° B.B.D.C.
Exhaust valve closes:6.5° B.T.D.C.10° B.T.D.C.
Checking values:1 mm valve stroke and “0” valve clearance
BTDC = Before top dead centreBBDC = Before bottom dead centre
ABDC = After bottom dead centreATDC = After top dead centre
1.1.Engine - Removal and Installation

The 1.9 litre engine is removed without the transmission from below the vehicle. The 2.4 litre and the 2.5 litre engines are removed together with the transmission, also from below the vehicle. Proceed as follows for the two engine types: Litre Engine

The engine is removed without with the transmission from below the vehicle. A strong mobile jack must be available. VW workshops use a special device to guide the engine. As this will obviously not be available to the average D.I.Y. man, we recommend that a helper holds the engine on the jack whilst it is lowered. Before the engine is removed, it is necessary to tilt the radiator and the bonnet lock carrier towards the front. This operation will also be necessary for various maintenance and service operations and the following description will be referred to at various stages when required.


Fig. 1.1. – The arrows show where the noise dampening panel is secured underneath the vehicle.


Fig. 1.2. - After removal of the screws (1) one each side of the vehicle, tilt the complete front end of the vehicle in the direction of the arrow. Note that on models with extended front end you will have to remove the radiator grille.

The removal of the engine can now proceed as follows:


Fig. 1.3. - Draining the cooling system. The numbers are referred to in the text.


Fig. 1.4. - The radiator is secured on the left-hand and right-hand sides at the positions shown by the arrows.


Fig. 1.5. – Details for the removal of the cold start operating cable. The numbers are referred to in the text.


Fig. 1.6. - Unscrew the plug at the position shown from the transmission and secure the clutch release lever by inserting an M8 x 22 mm bolt.

Install the engine and transmission in the reverse sequence to removal, noting the following points below:


Fig. 1.7. – The arrows show where the dowel pins must be fitted to the cylinder block.

Engine mounting bracket to engine mounting:6.5 kgm (47 ft.1b.)
Engine support, right, on cylinder block:5.0 kgm (36 ft.1b.) + 90° angle-tightening
Engine to Transmission:
M8 threads:2.0 kgm (15 ft.1b.)
M10 threads:6.0 kgm (43 ft.1b.)
M12 threads:8.0 kgm (58 ft.1b.)
Engine support, rear, on cylinder block:4.5 kgm (32.5 ft.1b.)
Engine support, rear, on transmission:2.0 kgm (15 ft.1b.)
Steering pump/cylinder block:2.5 kgm (18 ft.1b.)

The removal and installation of the engine is carried out in a similar manner as described in Section 1.1.0, but the following differences should be noted:


Fig. 1.8. – The drive plate to torque converter bolts will appear in the starter motor opening when the engine is rotated.


The engine is removed towards the bottom together with the transmission.


Fig. 1.9. – Details for the removal and installation of the charge air cooler of a 2.5 litre engine with the engine codes given in the text.


Fig. 1.10. – Disconnecting the actuating unit from the transmission. The numbers are referred to in the text.


Fig. 1.11. – The arrows show where the transmission mountings are attached.


Fig. 1.12. – Power unit mounting with central bolt. Only remove the bolt shown by the arrow.


Fig. 1.13. – Power unit mounting without central bolt. In this case remove the nuts shown by the arrows.

The installation of the transmission is a reversal of the removal procedure. Note the following points:

The following main tightening torques must be observed:

Engine to Transmission:
12 mm bolts:8.0 kgm (58
10 mm bolts:6.0 kgm (44
8 mm bolts:2.0 kgm (14.5
Transmission Mountings:
M10 x 60 mm bolts:6.5 kgm (47.5 ft.1b.)
M10 x 28 bolts:4.5 kgm (32.5 ft.1b.)
Drive shaft bolts:5.5 kgm (40 ft.1b.)
1.2.Engine Dismantling

Before commencing dismantling of the engine, all exterior surfaces should be cleaned, as far as possible, to remove dirt or grease. Plug the engine openings with clean cloth first to prevent any foreign matter entering the cavities and openings. Detailed information on engine dismantling and assembly is given in the sections dealing with servicing and overhaul (sections commencing at 1.4.) and these should be followed for each of the sub-assemblies or units to be dealt with.

Follow the general dismantling instructions given below:


Fig. 1.14. – The tightening sequence for the cylinder head bolts. Slacken the bolts in the reverse order. Shown for the four-cylinder engine. Refer to Section for the five-cylinder engines.


Fig. 1.15. – Marking connecting rods and bearing caps before removal. A centre punch is ideal for this operation.

Note: The oil seal for the intermediate shaft may be marked with an arrow which must point in the rotating direction of the engine when the oil seal is refitted.

In Section 1.4.6 you will find exploded views of the crankcase for the four- and five-cylinder engines and should be referred to during dismantling and the following assembly. There are, of course, six main bearing caps and no intermediate shaft is fitted to the five-cylinder engines. Otherwise there is a similarity between the crankshaft mounting of all three engines covered in this manual.

1.3.Engine - Assembly

Refer to the sections commencing at 1.4 for details of the assembly procedures. Most major component parts are covered and sub-divided between the four-cylinder engine and the five-cylinder engines.