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Annual Plant Reviews, The Gibberellins


Annual Plant Reviews, The Gibberellins


Annual Plant Reviews Volume 49

von: Peter Hedden, Stephen G. Thomas

142,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 11.03.2016
ISBN/EAN: 9781119213239
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 472

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Beschreibungen

<p>First discovered as fungal metabolites, the gibberellins were recognised as plant hormones over 50 years ago. They regulate reproductive development in all vascular plants, while their role in flowering plants has broadened to include also the regulation of growth and other developmental processes.</p> <p>This timely book covers the substantial and impressive recent advances in our understanding of the gibberellins and their roles in plant development, including the biosynthesis, inactivation, transport, perception and signal transduction of these important hormones. An introductory chapter traces the history of gibberellin research, describing the many discoveries that form the basis for the recent progress. The exciting emerging evidence for the interaction of gibberellin signalling with that of the other hormones is critically evaluated. The occurrence of gibberellins in fungal, bacterial and lower plant species is also discussed, with emphasis on evolution. Manipulation of gibberellin metabolism and signal transduction through chemical or genetic intervention has been an important aspect of crop husbandry for many years. The reader is presented with important information on the advances in applying gibberellin research in agriculture and horticulture.</p> <p><i>Annual Plant Reviews, Volume 49: The Gibberellins </i>is an important resource for plant geneticists and biochemists, as well as agricultural and horticultural research workers, advanced students of plant science and university lecturers in related disciplines. It is an essential addition to the shelves of university and research institute libraries and agricultural and horticultural institutions teaching and researching plant science.</p>
<p>List of Contributors xv</p> <p>Preface xvii</p> <p><b>1 Signal Achievements in Gibberellin Research: The Second Half-Century 1<br /> </b><i>Valerie M. Sponsel</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction 1</p> <p>1.2 Gibberellin biosynthesis 6</p> <p>1.3 Gibberellin signalling 17</p> <p>1.4 Physiological responses to gibberellins 25</p> <p>References 29</p> <p><b>2 Gibberellin Biosynthesis in Higher Plants 37<br /> </b><i>Peter Hedden</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction 37</p> <p>2.2 Synthesis of ent-kaurene 39</p> <p>2.2.1 Formation of trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate 39</p> <p>2.2.2 Formation of ent-kaurene from trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate 40</p> <p>2.3 Reactions catalysed by cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases 42</p> <p>2.4 Reactions catalysed by 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases 45</p> <p>2.5 Sites of gibberellin biosynthesis 49</p> <p>2.6 Regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis 50</p> <p>2.6.1 Developmental control 50</p> <p>2.6.2 Gibberellin homoeostasis 51</p> <p>2.6.3 Regulation by other hormones 54</p> <p>2.6.4 Regulation by environmental factors 55</p> <p>2.7 Concluding remarks 59</p> <p>Acknowledgements 60</p> <p>References 60</p> <p><b>3 Inactivation Processes 73<br /> </b><i>Hiroshi Magome and Yuji Kamiya</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 73</p> <p>3.2 Gibberellin inactivation 75</p> <p>3.2.1 Gibberellin 2-oxidase 75</p> <p>3.2.2 Gibberellin methyltransferase 77</p> <p>3.2.3 Gibberellin 16,17-oxidase 78</p> <p>3.2.4 Gibberellin 13-oxidase and 12α-oxidase 78</p> <p>3.2.5 Conjugation with sugar 80</p> <p>3.3 Regulation of gibberellin inactivation 80</p> <p>3.3.1 Developmental regulation 81</p> <p>3.3.2 Gibberellin homoeostasis 82</p> <p>3.3.3 Regulation by other hormones 83</p> <p>3.3.4 Environmental regulation 84</p> <p>3.4 Concluding remarks 87</p> <p>References 88</p> <p><b>4 Gibberellin Transport 95<br /> </b><i>Jonathan Dayan</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 95</p> <p>4.2 Gibberellins can be translocated along plant bodies 96</p> <p>4.3 Gibberellin transport in seeds 100</p> <p>4.4 Pattern of gibberellin biosynthesis in transport analysis 101</p> <p>4.5 Grafting experiments 103</p> <p>4.6 Significance for secondary growth 104</p> <p>4.7 Orientation of gibberellin signal flow: source and sink tissues 107</p> <p>4.8 Monitoring intra- and intercellular gibberellin concentration 110</p> <p>4.9 Conclusion: new aspects for gibberellin transport 111</p> <p>4.9.1 Potential transporters 111</p> <p>4.9.2 Analysis through perception 112</p> <p>4.9.3 Links to sugar transport 112</p> <p>Acknowledgements 113</p> <p>References 114</p> <p><b>5 Gibberellins in Fungi, Bacteria and Lower Plants: Biosynthesis, Function and Evolution 121<br /> </b><i>Bettina Tudzynski, Lena Studt and María Cecilia Rojas</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 122</p> <p>5.2 Gibberellin biosynthesis in fungi 122</p> <p>5.2.1 The biosynthetic pathway in F. fujikuroi: genes and enzymes 122</p> <p>5.2.2 Gibberellin production in distantly related fungi 126</p> <p>5.2.3 Evolution of the gibberellin biosynthetic gene cluster in fungi 128</p> <p>5.2.4 The role of gibberellins in plant infection 131</p> <p>5.2.5 Strain improvement 132</p> <p>5.3 Gibberellin biosynthesis in bacteria 133</p> <p>5.3.1 Free-living rhizobacteria 133</p> <p>5.3.2 Symbiotic rhizobacteria: genes and reactions of the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway 134</p> <p>5.3.3 Function and evolution 137</p> <p>5.4 Gibberellin biosynthesis and signalling components in lower plants 139</p> <p>5.5 Concluding remarks 143</p> <p>References 144</p> <p><b>6 Gibberellin Hormone Signal Perception: Down-Regulating DELLA Repressors of Plant Growth and Development 153<br /> </b><i>Sven K. Nelson and Camille M. Steber</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 154</p> <p>6.2 DELLA proteins are repressors of gibberellin responses 154</p> <p>6.3 Gibberellin signalling lifts DELLA repression of gibberellin responses 157</p> <p>6.4 The gibberellin receptor GID1 (GA-INSENSITIVE DWARF1) 159</p> <p>6.5 The structural requirements for gibberellin binding by GID1 161</p> <p>6.6 The structural requirements for the GID1-DELLA protein–protein interaction 162</p> <p>6.7 The DELLA destruction model: negative regulation of DELLA repressors by SLY1/GID2 and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway 166</p> <p>6.8 Regulation of DELLA by phosphorylation and O-GlcNAc modification 169</p> <p>6.9 Evidence for gibberellin-independent DELLA regulation 173</p> <p>6.10 Evidence for gibberellin signalling without DELLA destruction 175</p> <p>6.11 Concluding remarks 177</p> <p>Acknowledgements 179</p> <p>References 179</p> <p><b>7 DELLA Proteins: Master Regulators of Gibberellin-Responsive Growth and Development 189<br /> </b><i>Stephen G. Thomas, Miguel A. Blázquez and David Alabadí</i></p> <p>7.1 Introduction 190</p> <p>7.2 DELLAs regulate downstream gibberellin signalling 191</p> <p>7.3 Gibberellins relieve DELLA-growth repression by targeting their degradation 193</p> <p>7.4 Functional diversification of DELLA genes 194</p> <p>7.5 DELLA activity invokes rapid changes in the transcriptome 197</p> <p>7.6 DELLA proteins activate transcription 198</p> <p>7.7 DELLAs regulate transcription by physical interaction with transcriptional regulators 199</p> <p>7.7.1 DELLAs sequester bona fide TFs by physical interaction 200</p> <p>7.7.2 DELLAs interact with TFs in the context of promoters 204</p> <p>7.7.3 DELLAs interact with other transcriptional regulators 206</p> <p>7.7.4 DELLAs regulate chromatin dynamics 208</p> <p>7.8 A non-genomic response regulated by DELLAs 209</p> <p>7.9 Analysis of DELLA protein structure-function 210</p> <p>7.10 GAMYB: A transcriptional regulator of gibberellin responses during cereal grain germination and pollen development 213</p> <p>7.10.1 GAMYB positively regulates gene expression in cereal aleurone cells 214</p> <p>7.10.2 GAMYB regulates gibberellin-dependent anther development 216</p> <p>7.11 Concluding remarks 217</p> <p>Acknowledgements 218</p> <p>References 218</p> <p><b>8 Interactions Between Gibberellins and other Hormones 229<br /> </b><i>John J. Ross, Asemeh Miraghazadeh, Amelia H. Beckett, Laura J. Quittenden and Erin L. McAdam</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 229</p> <p>8.2 Interactions involving effects of other hormones on gibberellin levels 230</p> <p>8.2.1 Auxin promotes gibberellin biosynthesis 230</p> <p>8.2.2 Ethylene inhibits gibberellin biosynthesis 231</p> <p>8.2.3 Do gibberellin and abscisic acid inhibit each other’s synthesis? 232</p> <p>8.2.4 Do brassinosteroids act by affecting gibberellin levels? 234</p> <p>8.2.5 Possible effects of other hormones on gibberellin synthesis 234</p> <p>8.3 Interactions between hormone signal transduction pathways 234</p> <p>8.3.1 Do other hormones affect DELLA stability? 235</p> <p>8.3.2 DELLAs interact with proteins from the signaling pathways of other hormones 237</p> <p>8.4 Gibberellins and auxin transport 245</p> <p>8.5 Conclusion 246</p> <p>Acknowledgements 247</p> <p>References 247</p> <p><b>9 Gibberellins and Seed Germination 253</b></p> <p>Terezie Urbanova and Gerhard Leubner-Metzger</p> <p>9.1 Introduction 254</p> <p>9.2 Spatiotemporal expression of gibberellin metabolism during Brassicaceae seed germination 254</p> <p>9.3 Gibberellin signalling and seed germination 264</p> <p>9.3.1 The GID1ac and GID1b pathways in seeds 264</p> <p>9.3.2 DELLA proteins and seed germination 268</p> <p>9.4 Gibberellin and abiotic stress factors: thermoinhibition of seed germination 270</p> <p>9.5 Gibberellin and biotic stress factors: allelochemical interference of gibberellin biosynthesis during seed germination 273</p> <p>9.6 Conclusions and perspectives 276</p> <p>Acknowledgements 277</p> <p>References 277</p> <p><b>10 Gibberellins and Plant Vegetative Growth 285<br /> </b><i>Cristina Martínez, Ana Espinosa-Ruiz and Salomé Prat</i></p> <p>10.1 Introduction 285</p> <p>10.2 Gibberellins and shoot development 288</p> <p>10.2.1 Control of SAM function and leaf size 289</p> <p>10.2.2 Elongation of the hypocotyl 290</p> <p>10.2.3 Apical hook formation 295</p> <p>10.3 Gibberellin function in root development 298</p> <p>10.3.1 Hormonal control of root growth 298</p> <p>10.3.2 Gibberellin signalling from the endodermis 302</p> <p>10.3.3 DELLAs downstream signalling in the root 304</p> <p>10.3.4 DELLAs promote mycorrhizal symbiosis 306</p> <p>10.4 Growth under unfavourable conditions 308</p> <p>10.4.1 DELLAs promote resistance to abiotic stress 308</p> <p>10.4.2 DELLAs and biotic stress 310</p> <p>10.5 Concluding remarks 311</p> <p>References 312</p> <p><b>11 Gibberellins and Plant Reproduction 323<br /> </b><i>Andrew R.G. Plackett and Zoe A. Wilson</i></p> <p>11.1 Introduction 323</p> <p>11.2 The floral transition 324</p> <p>11.2.1 Gibberellin promotes flowering through multiple interacting pathways 324</p> <p>11.2.2 Sites of gibberellin biosynthesis and action during the floral transition 329</p> <p>11.2.3 Gibberellin and flowering in perennial species 331</p> <p>11.3 Floral development 331</p> <p>11.3.1 Floral patterning and early development 332</p> <p>11.3.2 Gibberellin and fertility 334</p> <p>11.4 Seed and fruit development 340</p> <p>11.4.1 Fruit development 341</p> <p>11.4.2 Embryo and seed development 345</p> <p>Acknowledgements 348</p> <p>References 348</p> <p><b>12 Chemical Regulators of Gibberellin Status and their Application in Plant Production 359<br /> </b><i>Wilhelm Rademacher</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 359</p> <p>12.2 Gibberellins 361</p> <p>12.3 Inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis 363</p> <p>12.3.1 Quaternary ammonium compounds 365</p> <p>12.3.2 Compounds with a nitrogen-containing heterocycle 366</p> <p>12.3.3 Structural mimics of 2-oxoglutaric acid 369</p> <p>12.3.4 16,17-Dihydro-gibberellins 371</p> <p>12.4 Uses for gibberellins and inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis in crop production 372</p> <p>12.4.1 Wheat, barley, rye, oats and other small-grain cereals 373</p> <p>12.4.2 Rice 376</p> <p>12.4.3 Sugarcane 377</p> <p>12.4.4 Pasture and turf grasses 377</p> <p>12.4.5 Oilseed rape 379</p> <p>12.4.6 Cotton 379</p> <p>12.4.7 Peanuts 381</p> <p>12.4.8 Opium poppy 382</p> <p>12.4.9 Fruit trees growing in temperate climate 382</p> <p>12.4.10 Fruit and nut trees growing in subtropical and tropical climates 385</p> <p>12.4.11 Grapevines 387</p> <p>12.4.12 Ornamentals 389</p> <p>12.4.13 Hybrid seed production 391</p> <p>12.5 Outlook 391</p> <p>References 391</p> <p><b>13 Genetic Control of Gibberellin Metabolism and Signalling in Crop Improvement 405<br /> </b><i>Andrew L. Phillips</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 405</p> <p>13.2 The REDUCED HEIGHT-1 (Rht-1) alleles of wheat 406</p> <p>13.2.1 Pleiotropic effects of Rht-1 alleles 410</p> <p>13.2.2 Rht-1 orthologues in other crop species 412</p> <p>13.3 The SEMI-DWARF-1(SD-1) alleles of rice 413</p> <p>13.4 The ELONGATED UPPERMOST INTERNODE (EUI) gene of rice 415</p> <p>13.5 Commercially useful alleles of other genes from the gibberellin pathway 416</p> <p>13.6 Transgenic approaches to manipulation of gibberellin-dependent processes in crops 419</p> <p>13.6.1 Cereals 419</p> <p>13.6.2 Other crop species 420</p> <p>13.7 Conclusions 423</p> <p>Acknowledgements 424</p> <p>References 424</p> <p>Appendix The structures of the gibberellins 431</p> <p>Index 437</p>
<p><b>Professor Peter Hedden</b> graduated with BSc (1969) and PhD (1973) degrees in chemistry from the University of Bristol. After post-doctoral positions at the University of Göttingen, Germany, with Jan Graebe and at UCLA, USA, with Bernard Phinney, he joined East Malling Research Station, in Kent, United Kingdom in 1981. He moved to Long Ashton Research Station (LARS), Bristol, UK, in 1984 and then to Rothamsted Research after the closure of LARS in 2003. His main research interest throughout his career has been the biosynthesis of the gibberellin plant hormones, working initially on delineating the biosynthetic pathways, then on the isolation and characterization of the biosynthetic enzymes and latterly on their regulation by developmental and environmental factors. Current research includes exploiting the gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways for the introduction of desirable traits into crop species.</p> <p><b>Dr Steve Thomas</b> graduated BSc from the University of Southampton in 1991. He gained a PhD in biochemistry at Bristol University in 1996. In the same year he started postdoctoral work at Long Ashton Research Station where he spent four years investigating the regulation of gibberellin biosynthesis and inactivation in sugar beet and Arabidopsis. He then spent three and a half years in Tai-ping Sun’s Laboratory at Duke University dissecting the signalling pathways controlling gibberellin-mediated degradation of DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis. In 2004, he returned to the UK to work with Dr Andy Phillips and Prof. Peter Hedden in the Hormone Signalling Group at Rothamsted Research as a Senior Scientist. He is currently a member of the 20:20 Wheat® Institute Strategic Programme at Rothamsted Research, with his research  focused on improving grain yields in wheat by manipulating plant hormone signalling.</p>

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